Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel supplying the brain is blocked, myocardial infarction when a blood vessel supplying the heart is blocked, both threatening death.
Dr Nguyen Van Tan, Head of Emergency Interventional Cardiology Department at Thong Nhat Hospital, said acute myocardial infarction is a cardiovascular emergency with dangerous complications which, if not treated promptly, can lead to rapid death. The disease occurs because the artery supplying the heart is blocked in a certain branch, causing the myocardium to progress to necrosis, easily leading to heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death.
According to Dr. Tan, the common symptoms are chest pain, shortness of breath, cardiac arrhythmia … Coronary intervention in the first hours is considered the first treatment.
The most common cause of a heart attack is a blood clot forming inside a blood vessel that blocks this coronary artery. Some of the risk factors that increase the appearance of plaque are smoking, high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, a family history of early cardiovascular disease (men under 55, women under 65).
In young people, myocardial infarction in men is 3 times higher than in women. After menopause, due to the lack of protection of female sex hormones, the disease ratio between men and women returns to balance.
Associate Professor Nguyen Huy Thang, vice president of the Vietnam Stroke Association, head of the cerebrovascular disease department at 115 People’s Hospital (HCMC), said that a stroke, also known as stroke, is a blood disease. part of the brain is interrupted or severely reduced, leaving that area of the brain deprived of oxygen and nutrients. A few minutes after the anemia, the lack of oxygen, the brain cells will die. Severe or extensive brain damage can lead to death or leave serious sequelae of movement, cognition, language, vision …
There are two types of brain stroke: ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
Cerebral infarction (cerebral ischemia) occurs when a blood vessel supplying the brain is blocked by a blood clot, thrombus, or atherosclerotic stenosis. A heart attack is more common, accounting for about 85% of strokes, and is curable with early hospitalization within the first few hours of symptom onset. The death rate for this type of stroke is around 15-20%.
Brain hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts and blood flows in or around the brain parenchyma. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for about 15% of strokes, but with more serious complications and higher mortality.
According to Dr. Thang, patients with cerebral hemorrhage have a death rate of up to 40%, the prognosis mainly depends on the size of the hematoma in the brain. The larger the size, the greater the risk of death and disability of the patient. Usually, treatment is aimed only at preventing the hematoma from increasing in size and reducing complications.
30% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage are reversible, able to walk, and 30% of patients are permanently disabled. Disability here includes two levels of ability to do personal activities on their own but unable to return to the original job; Severe disability means having to stay in bed, unable to take care of yourself.
Dr Vo Van Tan, head of the neurology department of the Gia Dinh People’s Hospital, said that patients with cerebral infarction who present to the hospital at the onset of the golden period can be effectively treated with fibrinolytic drugs. and endovascular intervention.
Patients with cerebral hemorrhage depending on the cause will have appropriate treatment. In case of arterial hypertension will be controlled the arterial pressure, intensive resuscitation. If the cerebral hemorrhage is caused by a vascular abnormality, it will be treated with endovascular or surgical intervention.
“Any type of stroke, when symptoms appear, should get to a medical facility as soon as possible. Applying oral and traditional treatments will delay the golden period of treatment,” Dr. Tan said.
Dr Tran Thi Mai Uyen, head of the neurology – stroke department at Gia An 115 Hospital, said that early emergency care in the “golden time” of 3 to 4 and a half hours from the The appearance of the first symptoms are very important, helping to reduce mortality and increase the chances of recovery.
Currently, Vietnam has access to many of the most recent techniques in the world for stroke diagnosis and treatment. Many centers in our country have used advanced imaging to diagnose stroke, treat reperfusion with modern techniques such as intravenous thrombolysis, thrombectomy with instruments … Recently with the help of RAPID software applying the artificial intelligence, the time to save the brain can be up to 24 hours.
The main group of risk factors for stroke are hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Some other factors are obesity, smoking, people with cardiovascular diseases, alcoholism, transient ischemic attack …
According to Dr. Uyen, in the past, many people believed that strokes only occur in older people, the risk of disease increases with age. However, many recent statistics show that the number of young patients under the age of 45 is increasing. Many people die or have to live a lifetime of disability after a stroke, even at a very young age, leaving more serious consequences for themselves, their families and society.
Doctors recommend that people with diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, etc. are well controlled and processed. Pay attention to periodic check-ups and screening for strokes, especially for people at high risk. Build a positive lifestyle, limit alcohol, do not smoke, do not use stimulants, eat in moderation, increase green vegetables, fresh fruits, reduce salt, reduce fat, exercise every day days, avoid excessive and prolonged nervous tension …
Patients with stroke may develop sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arms, or legs. Especially when symptoms occur on one side of the body, deformity of the mouth, sudden inability or difficulty in speaking, blurred vision, headache, dizziness, loss of balance … Then it is necessary to immediately transfer the patient to the nearest medical establishment. facility capable of treating and providing emergency care.